oil booms
 
 
spacer
spill kits triangle OIL POLLUTION RECOVERY
spacer
oil containment circle Industrial Oil Skimmer
spacer
oil containment circle Low Capacity Oil Skimmer
spacer
oil containment circle Heavy Oil Skimmer
spacer
oil containment circle Inshore Emergency Oil Skimmer
spacer
oil containment circle Offshore Emergency Oil Skimmer
spacer
oil containment circle Oil Pollution Vessel
oil booms
oil containment circle OPEC Mop
spacer
spill kits triangle OIL POLLUTION CONTAINMENT
spacer
oil containment circle Inflatable Oil Booms
spacer
oil containment circle Permanent Oil Booms
oil booms
oil containment circle Floating Debris Collection
spacer
oil containment circle Flexitanks
spacer
oil containment circle Pillowtanks
bunds
oil containment circle Self erecting tanks
berms
oil containment circle Temporary Oil/Water Separator Tanks
spacer
oil containment circle Temporary Bunds
spacer
spill kits triangle OIL POLLUTION SPILL RESPONSE
spacer
oil containment circle Oil Spill Response Units
spacer
oil containment circle Oil & Chemical Adsorbent Booms
spacer
oil containment circle Oil & Chemical Adsorbent Rolls - RP18
spacer
oil containment circle Oil & Chemical Absorbent Rolls - HW33
spacer
oil containment circle Oil & Chemical Emergency Spill Kits
spacer
oil containment circle Oil & Chemical Tanker Spill Kits
spacer
oil containment circle Oil & Chemical Adsorbent Hand Mops
spacer
oil containment circle Oil Adsorbents for Railway Tracks
spacer
spill kits triangle OIL POLLUTION BIO-TREATMENT AND CLEANING CHEMICALS
spacer
oil containment circle Industrial Cleaning
spacer
oil containment circle Oil Stains
spacer
oil containment circle Petrol Stations
spacer
oil containment circle Food Processing
spacer
oil containment circle Medical Cleaning
spacer
oil containment circle Janitorial Cleaning
spacer
spacer
spill kits triangle OIL POLLUTION SLUDGE CONTROL
spacer
oil containment circle SRJ Submerged Rotary Jet mixer
spacer
spacer
oil containment circle Mini Dozer (Hydrodozer)
spacer
oil containment circle Pumps
spacer
oil containment circle Diesel Hydraulic Power Packs
spacer
oil containment circle Separator Systems
spacer
oil containment circle Industrial Oil Skimmer (E-Series)
spacer
spill kits triangle JET REFRIGERATION
spacer
oil containment circle Wap-Flaro Introduction
spacer
oil containment circle Wap-Flaro What is it?
spacer
oil containment circle Wap-Flaro How Does it Work?
spacer
oil containment circle Applications
spacer
oil containment circle Financial Benefits
spacer
oil containment circle User List
spacer
 
 
 
 
 
oil skimmersabout usproductscase studiesmedia archivesforumagentscontact us
  How Does WF work?  
 

 
Refrigeration Technology
WF is a type of 'jet refrigeration' and does not require coolants or compressors to produce large volumes of chilled water.

WF only needs low pressure waste steam and water to operate.

So how does it work?
WF uses a combination of specially designed technologies to cool down industrial process water or liquid gas to maximize heat transfer efficiency.

The process utilizes the theory of jet refrigeration. Low pressure waste steam passes through a series of ejectors and condensers which cools down circulated water within the facility. The generated chilled water flows through heat exchangers. It is these heat exchangers where the circulation water from the industrial process meets with the WF chilled water and is cooled to the desired temperature.

WF is a closed loop system. The whole system is controlled and automated by the use of an integral Digital Control System (DCS). Each system is individually designed to cool down water to specific temperature requirements.

 

 

Fig 1. An example of a 4,000,000kcal plant


One module is capable of producing 200m³ per hour of chilled water at approximately 4-6°c. To achieve this approximately 2500kg/h of low pressure waste steam between 2-4 bar pressure is passed through the ejectors. Approximately 10% of the chilled water production is from make-up water, thus every module requires approximately 20m³ per hour of make-up water.

The use of a modular design enables increased chilled water production capacity by simply adding modules to the system.

General Description of each stage in the operation

 

 

Fig 2. Flow Diagram of One Module

Key:
1. Steam throughput
2. Chilling Unit
3. Heat Exchange
4. Water Circulation Unit
5. Water Filter Unit

1. Steam
First stage of the process.

 

 

Fig 3a. Steam manifold and distribution pipes
 

 

 

Fig 3b. Typical Steam Configuration
 

Low-pressure waste steam from the industrial process is piped to this collection point. It is then distributed to the various ejectors on the plant. The steam can be as low as 1 bar pressure.

The WF digital control system regulates pressure and flow rates at this point and automatically opens and closes valves according the variables set by the system.

The waste steam does not need to be anything more than 2-4 bar (even as low as 1 bar). The design and size of the ejectors creates the vacuum needed for the chilling effect to occur.

2. Chilling Unit
Below is an example of the layout of a WF ejector configuration. On the left is the evaporator column. In the middle there are 3 ejectors and on the right is a condenser column.

Water to be chilled is sprinkled over the top of the evaporator column and then gravity feeds to the chilled water tank below. From the water tank it is pumped to the heat exchangers to cool down industrial process water.

 

 

Fig 4a. The chilling unit
 

 

 

Fig 4b. Aerial view of 2 chilling units
 

 

 

Fig 4c. Panoramic view of 2 chilling units
 

The steam from the steam configuration pipe is fed through the venturi type ejectors, (above) and creates a vacuum in the evaporator column. It is this vacuum effect that removes latent heat from the chilled circulation water being sprinkled through the evaporator column. The removal of this latent heat rapidly cools down the temperature of the water within the evaporator.

The shape and design of the venturi ejectors speed up the flow of steam. As the steam speeds up the pressure differential created causes a movement of air from the evaporator column and thus a vacuum is created. Once the steam reaches the end of the ejectors the steam expands as the throat of the ejector widens. Rapid expansion causes the steam to lose temperature and form water droplets.

Used steam is collected in the condenser column. Condensing media within the chamber enhances the condensing effect. Circulation water is also used at this point to assist cooling within the chambers. Heat is also removed from the smaller auxiliary venturi ejectors further on in the process. Condensed steam is re-circulated and steam that still exists as a vapour is released to atmosphere.

3. Heat Exchange
The final stage of the process. The chilled water is pumped to the heat exchangers. At the same time industrial process water is also pumped to the heat exchangers from outside the plant. The resultant heated, chilled water from the WF process is re-circulated to the top of the evaporator column where it can be chilled again. The now cooled industrial process water can be used to enhance heat exchange in other parts of the site. It may even be used to aid air-conditioning.

 

 

Fig 5. Example of a Spiral Type Heat Exchanger
 

Above is an example of a spiral type heat exchanger. From experience and technical design it is possible to build these heat exchangers in various types, shapes and sizes that best fits the requirements. Take for example the need to chill water from 24°c to 4°c in one complete cycle for 1000m³/h. To achieve this 4 spiral type heat exchangers approximately 300m² each, with a total of 1200m² of contact surface would enable this temperature variance to occur.

The size and type of heat exchanger is determined by local conditions and individual requirements on site.

4. Water Circulation Unit
As mentioned above circulation water is used to maintain temperatures within the plant. The used water is contained in a large tank and pumped to a cooling water system before being used again within the process.

5. Water Filter Unit

To maintain optimum capacity within the plant excess water is required. Depending on the application and location up to 10% of chilled water production can be from make-up water. To ensure this water contains no particulates a water filter unit is built into the system. Some of this make-up water can be collected from the condensed steam.

 

 

Home / Products / Jet Refrigeration / WF - How Does it Work?

 
Video Archives
Photo Archives
media library Library
oil containment case studies Case Studies

Additional Information:

Case Studies in China

Evaluation of flare gas on oil refineries

 
oil booms berms and bunding
Sitemap oil booms berms and bunding